How to Transfer Shares In Private Company


How to Transfer Shares In Private Company

  1.  Shares of a private company are not marketable securities due to restriction on right to transfer. Such shares by their very nature are not freely transferable in the market. The objective behind the right of restriction on the transfer of shares is to preserve the composition of the shareholding.

    2.  The section 2(68) of the Companies Act 2013 restricts the right to transfer shares but does not prohibit the right to transfer shares. In case of transfer of shares of a private company, the provisions or restrictions contained in the Articles of Association should be duly complied with by the transferor and transferee.

3.   As per the provisions of section 44 of the companies Act, 2013, shares or debentures or other interest are movable property, transferable in the manner provided by the Articles of the company. Therefore, there cannot be an absolute prohibition on the right to transfer shares. The right to transfer may be subjected to restrictions contained in the articles and there cannot be total prohibition or ban on transferability of shares. However, only permissible restriction on transferability may be contained in the Articles of association. Restrictions upon transfer of shares in private companies are not applicable in following cases:-

    On the right of a member to transfer his/ her shares in a case where the shares are to be transferred to his/her representative(s).

   In the event of death of a shareholder, legal representatives may require the registration of shares in the names of heirs, on whom the shares have been devolved.

    In respect of shares which are proposed to be issued on a right basis, existing members would have a right to renounce shares likely to be allotted to them. If the existing shareholders renounce their shares then these shares will be allotted to the renounces for the first time and therefore no transfer of shares will take place.

4. Restriction on right to transfer shares is generally placed by using following two methods:

    Right of pre-emption: If a member wishes to sell some or all of his shares, such shares shall first be offered to other existing members of the company at a price determined by the directors or by the auditor of the company or by the use of formula set out in the articles. If no existing member is determined to acquire shares, then shares can be transferred by the transferor to the proposed transferee. A member is not bound to sell his shares to other members under pre-emption clause unless any other member or members agree to buy all the shares proposed to be sold. The transfer between the members is outside the purview of pre-emption clause. The pre-emption clause cannot place a complete ban on right to transfer; they cannot completely prohibit the transfer.
   Valuation of Shares under Pre emption clause: Articles of Association of private company provide that the shares are to be sold under pre-emption clause at a fair price determined by the directors or the auditor of the company. It may also be provided that the fair price would be certified by the auditor of the company. If the pre-emption clause requires that the shares are required to be offered to other members at a price certified by the directors or auditor(s), the court are not in a position to enquire in to the correctness of valuation, unless there is evidence that valuation was not correctly made. If the person who made the valuation has acted negligently and failed to take into account all the necessary factors for arriving at the value of share, in such case the transferor may sue for damages to the person who made the valuation for difference between the value of the share, as computed by the valuer, and the real value of shares

5.  Powers of directors to refuse registration of transfer of shares: The Powers of directors to refuse registration of transfer of shares are specified in the articles of association of the company. This power is to be exercised by the Board of directors in good faith.
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